Certain components on vehicles lure thieves to steal these parts in massive numbers. It’s not uncommon for entire dealership lots and city streets to emerge after nightfall, only to find that every vehicle in the area is missing this critical part.
These parts are so valuable that thieves flock to shopping malls to have their pick of makes and models during the holidays, stealing these pieces in broad daylight. Can you guess what this part might be?
You’re absolutely wrong if you guessed something like the rims or the stereo inside the car. These commonly stolen items are catalytic converters, and currently, they’re being hacked off of cars in record numbers.
So, what exactly is a catalytic converter, and what does it do? In the following article, we’ll answer this question and examine why these parts tend to fail easily, and what makes them so expensive.
Catalytic converters have been an essential part of the automotive industry for decades. These devices remove harmful emissions from exhaust fumes by converting toxic gases into less hazardous substances through oxidation processes. This is achieved using catalysts that can speed up chemical reactions without being burned or damaged themselves.
The first car engines used catalytic converters because of their ability to reduce carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon emissions. Nowadays, most cars use this type of device to control environmental pollution and improve fuel efficiency and performance. However, due to some issues such as poor design choices, low durability, and high manufacturing costs, these systems suffer major setbacks today. Let’s look at how they work and what causes them to break down more often than usual.
A catalytic converter consists of three basic components: catalyst material, support structure, and airflow passages. The core component is the catalyst itself, including platinum, palladium, rhodium, and other metals mixed with ceramic materials like aluminum oxide.
When it comes to selecting the right metal, its effectiveness depends on the specific application. For example, when temperatures reach over 600 degrees Fahrenheit, it becomes ineffective.
The next important element is the carrier. It provides structural stability while allowing proper airflow to pass through it. A wire mesh made out of stainless steel is commonly used for this purpose.
Finally, the air flow passages are where oxygen molecules enter the system. Each passage should be properly sized and shaped according to the engine configuration to ensure efficient operation.
Fresh gas enters the combustion chamber via intake valves when you start your car. After mixing with air inside the cylinder, the mixture ignites using spark plugs. During this process, lots of heat energy is released, causing large amounts of CO2 and unburned hydrocarbons to form within seconds.
To prevent this situation, catalytic converters come equipped with catalyst beds positioned near the end of the exhaust pipe. As soon as the gasses leave the cylinders, the catalysts convert CO2 and HCs into less dangerous compounds like water vapor and nitrogen oxides.
As stated earlier, the whole conversion process takes place thanks to two main factors: temperature and air circulation. Since the catalyst bed operates under normal conditions, the surrounding temperature must stay above 350 degrees. Otherwise, if the temperature drops below 200, the catalytic activity will slow down significantly.
Many manufacturers incorporate heating elements to maintain optimal operating temperatures to solve this problem. On top of that, since the catalysts need plenty of O2 to become active, special structures called “converters” manage the incoming air.
These units consist of several sections, including mufflers, silencers, reactors, pre-tubes, post-tubes, and traps. Each one contributes differently to the overall function.
While the muffler reduces noise levels and helps regulate the pressure drop across the entire unit, the reactor plays a crucial role as it absorbs all the vibrations caused by the pistons. Then, once the gasses go past the reactor, the silencer prevents any further turbulence that could damage the internal components.
Finally, the gasses meet the trap section after passing through the pre-tube and post- tube tubes. Here, the remaining pollutants get trapped before entering the atmosphere. Due to this fact, the trap has to be designed carefully to avoid backflowing gas interfering with the following stages.
The last step happens once the system reaches the final stage, known as a catalyst wall. High-surface area materials act as adsorption sites for various poisonous substances present in the exhaust stream. Once loaded, the walls release the converted products to the outside world. Lastly, the tailpipe ends with another set of mufflers to minimize sound waves and noise.
There are basically four types of catalytic converters on the market: full catalytic converters, honeycomb designs, ceramic matrix composites, and washable models. All of these options have pros and cons associated with them. However, based on our research, we believe the full catalytic converter is the best choice, although it requires additional maintenance.
Full catalytic converters include the aforementioned features mentioned above, plus extra protection against overheating. Also, they provide better thermal insulation to protect the precious catalyst surfaces from sudden changes in ambient temperature. Unfortunately, due to higher initial expenses, these models tend to be higher in price compared to others.
On the other hand, honeycombs offer similar benefits to full catalytic converters but lack certain functionalities. Instead of having separate chambers, they feature just one big compartment filled with catalyst material. Honeycomb designs typically perform slightly worse than their counterparts during cold starts, even though they still outperform diesel vehicles.
Lastly, ceramic matrix composite (CMC) technology offers excellent durability and longevity. However, despite coming at a relatively affordable price, it suffers from lower efficiency rates. Its biggest advantage is its low weight, making it ideal for smaller cars.
In conclusion, choosing between different catalytic converter technologies largely depends on personal preferences. Some people prefer to buy cheaper models and skip buying new ones every few years, whereas others want to spend money upfront to enjoy longer warranties. Ultimately, it boils down to evaluating your needs and budget.
Catalytic converters don’t always live up to expectations despite their tremendous potential. Over time, faulty construction, clogged channels, and worn-out catalysts lead to severe problems.
One common issue stems from improper installation. The converter might vibrate too violently if the wrong mounting bracket is chosen. At the same time, inaccurate measurements may cause hot spots resulting in premature failures.
Both scenarios happen easily nowadays, given how easy it is to install everything yourself. Therefore, make sure to consult professional experts before installing anything to avoid costly mistakes later on.
Another reason for malfunctions relates to aging. Because of exposure to extreme environments, these machines usually experience mechanical degradation sooner than average.
Moreover, catalytic converters exposed to excessive puddles of oil, road salt, and other chemicals accumulate deposits leading to blockages. Eventually, the converter loses its functionality completely.
Other reasons include incorrect tuning, incorrect replacement timing, and inadequate cleaning. Improper tuning occurs when engineers choose inappropriate settings that result in increased NOx production instead of reduced emissions.
Cleaning refers to removing accumulated contaminants which leads to poor performance. Lastly, replacing outdated catalytic converters at the wrong moment could end up leading to further damage to the vehicle.
Due to the complex nature of designing, building, testing, and maintaining catalytic converters, manufacturing requires highly skilled labor. Not surprisingly, creating one piece involves numerous steps, from drawing blueprints to producing finished goods.
Therefore, most companies employ hundreds of workers who specialize in different areas. Additionally, catalytic converter factories keep track of multiple quality parameters throughout the complete product cycle.
Moreover, catalytic converters aren’t exempt from wear and tear despite providing superior safety standards. Their intricate inner workings demand regular inspections from specialized technicians. Furthermore, the presence of corrosive agents such as sulfur dioxide and nitrous acid affects the life expectancy of these machines.
Additionally, unlike other auto parts, catalytic converters have no significant impact on a vehicle’s overall operation. The vehicle will still run, although there be a significantly higher amount of emissions released, increased noise levels, and a decrease in fuel efficiency. Because of the beating these parts take, companies must invest heavily into the R&D process to develop efficient variations of these parts.
Catalytic converters represent a huge financial investment mainly because of their complicated lifecycle management. Even though they’re worth buying, it’s imperative to understand exactly how much money you’ll pay for yours before ordering one.
Aside from all of the elements mentioned above, one significant factor makes catalytic converters so expensive. The same characteristic makes these parts so attractive to thieves – the precious metals found on the inside of these components.
The catalyst inside of a catalytic converter is normally platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), and rhodium (Rh). Each of these three is known as a platinum group metal or PGM. They’re incredibly rare but have a very wide range of different uses.
Platinum is used in lab and dental equipment, contacts on electrical equipment, and various types of jewelry. Palladium is a key component of fuel cell technology and manufacturing. Because of the high demand and low supply, thieves or recovery and scrap companies often target these precious metals to cash out at recycling centers.
The metal recycling sector is a multi-billion dollar per year industry, and catalytic converters drive a fair amount of this revenue. Catalyst material in the automotive industry is made of a ceramic substrate, cordierite covered in a precious metal finished with a cash coat, or a metallic substrate with an aluminum oxide wash coat that contains previous metals as well.
When taken to a recycler, the value of the catalytic converter varies depending on the concentration of these metals inside the component. The price paid for these components at scrap yards can range from $50 into the thousands.
Cars that fetch the highest prices for their converters include the following:
Clearly, these components can bring a considerable amount of cash when they’re sold through recyclers to melt them down and sell them by the pound. However, if you have to replace one of these through a manufacturer, you could be looking at paying double the prices listed above in some cases.
You can take small steps to extend the life and improve the efficiency of your converter. Using premium gasoline, changing your oil regularly, and avoiding areas with high amounts of debris and hazardous materials on the roadway can decrease the damage done to these parts.
If possible, compare catalytic converter prices offered by different suppliers to find the lowest available rate. As with any other auto part, finding one for a much lower price is possible by purchasing directly through a large warehouse or manufacturer.
Resourceshttps://cartvshows.com/cars-with-most-expensive-catalytic-converters/#1-ferrari-f430 https://www.readersfact.com/what-cars-have-the-most-expensive-catalytic-converters/ https://www.bbc.com/news/business-56882495